Strategy traces its origins in ancient Greece, being a military concept related to the art of the old generals by which he managed and command his troops with the aim of defeating the enemy army. Throughout the successive centuries the word strategy continued linked to the military world, until mid-twentieth century when the business science area adopts the word strategy as the management and direction of resources in order to position itself superiorly to the rest of competitors and rivals present in the market.
Throughout time, various prestige personalities within the strategic area worldwide have defined the strategy under different points of view, following are several definitions of strategy within the business world.
In 1962, Alfred Dupont Chandler, professor at the prestigious Harvard Business School, defined the strategy as the determination of the long-term objectives and goals of a company, as well as the definition of the set of actions and resources needed to achieve those goals.
In 1977 Theodore A. Smith in his book "Dynamic business strategies" defined the strategy as the plan through which you get the best returns of the resources, the selection of the type of business as well as the plan by which to obtain a favorable position within the market.
In 1979 Bruce Henderson, founder of the prestigious strategic consultancy Boston Consulting Group, defined the strategy as the search for an action plan that allows the company to create competitive advantages of the rest of the competitors, being the differences between the company and rest of competitors the basis of competitive advantage.
In November of 1996, through the famous article "What is strategy?", Michael Porter defined the strategy as the heart and nucleus of the business management by which it develops the unique and valuable position of the company, by means of the choice of different activities from those of competitors and rivals. Porter says that the strategy is to be different.
In 1998, Kevin Scholes, Gerry Johnson and Richard Whittington defined the strategy as the direction and scope of an organization over a long period of time, where they develop and achieve advantages over rivals in a changing environment through the configuration of resources and competences with the objective of satisfying the expectations of the stakeholders.
With all this we can synthesize and define the strategy as the process by which the products and / or services that a company or organization will offer to a certain market are chosen, taking into account their skills and abilities as well as the threats and opportunities that are perceived, with the aim of achieving greater positions and competitive advantages of the rest of the competitors.
Finally, the strategic process tries to answer 3 fundamental questions about our business:
Where we are?
Where are we going?
How do we get there?
The use of various strategic tools and methodologies (Balanced Scorecard, Pestel, SWOT, Competitive Strategies ...) will allow us to answer each of these questions and properly establish the strategy in our company.
Currently the strategy and its process of analysis, definition and implementation is a key and basic pillar of any organization or company, being essential to achieve and maintain competitive advantages that ensure profitability, life and continuity in the future of our business.
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